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Article XIX of GATT (Emergency Action) and the WTO Agreement on Safeguards (1994) allow member States to take safeguard measures to protect domestic producers from serious injury caused by increased imports. These measures can be in the form of an import duty exceeding the bound rate, import quotas (where allowed) or a combination of both as Tariff Rate Quotas.  The measures can only be applied for a limited duration, initially lasting for up to four years, and can be extended to a maximum of eight years (10 years in the case of developing countries, including a least developed country) from the date of their initial imposition.

The Gravity Model of International Trade: A User Guide (An updated version)

The gravity model is the workhorse of the applied international trade literature. It has been used in literally thousands of research papers and published articles covering all areas of trade. It is of particular interest to policy researchers because it makes it possible to estimate the trade impacts of various trade-related policies, from traditional tariffs to new “behind-the-border” measures.

International Conference on Inclusive Science, Technology and Innovation Policies for Promoting the Transfer of New and Emerging Technologies in Water and Energy Sectors

Water and energy are critical resources for sustainable and inclusive development as recognized by the Sustainable Development Goals 6 (Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all) and 7 (Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all) respectively. Harnessing technology and innovation to achieve these goals requires inclusive policies that ensures no one is left behind. For this purpose, concerted efforts are needed to develop and adopt inclusive policies, strategies and best practices by the member States.

Asia-Pacific AI for Social Good Summit

Organised by ESCAP and hosted by the Government of Thailand, the Summit will explore how to leverage artificial intelligence (AI) to promote social and economic impact and meet the Sustainable Development Goals. It will showcase research and spark discussion on creating an enabling environment for the growth and application of AI, the likely social impact and risks and challenges associated with AI.

Expert Group Meeting on Science and Technology Parks

Science and technology parks can serve as useful vehicles for innovation and growth of start-ups. However, effective development and management of these parks is not always easy. Among many questions, what policies should be put in place to facilitate development of science and technology parks? In an era of digital connectivity, how should science and technology parks adjust themselves to embrace new opportunities and challenges?

What’s Wrong with Protectionism?

This short book responds to seven common objections to free trade corresponding to the seven sections of this review. It successfully points out the fallacies underlying those objections by introducing theories of free trade and providing examples and statistics correspondingly. In this review, I will summarize some concepts and conclusions that I find most important and interesting. Since the purpose of this book is to counter misconceptions about protectionism, the book emphasizes conceptual works rather than quantitative studies. It clarifies relevant economic concepts and trade theories in the body of each chapter. In the essays following each chapter, applications of those concepts and theories are collected in the form of case studies or extensions.

Clashing Over Commerce: A History of US Trade Policy

Throughout the U.S. trade history, the degree of protectionism that the United States (US) should adopt has always been at the center of its trade policy and a leading source of its domestic political conflict. Douglas A. Irwin’s book Clashing Over Commerce discusses comprehensively the history of US trade policy from the colonial period to modern days, including recent economic developments under the presidencies from Bill Clinton to Donald Trump.