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Article XIX of GATT (Emergency Action) and the WTO Agreement on Safeguards (1994) allow member States to take safeguard measures to protect domestic producers from serious injury caused by increased imports. These measures can be in the form of an import duty exceeding the bound rate, import quotas (where allowed) or a combination of both as Tariff Rate Quotas.  The measures can only be applied for a limited duration, initially lasting for up to four years, and can be extended to a maximum of eight years (10 years in the case of developing countries, including a least developed country) from the date of their initial imposition.

Handbook on Policies, Promotion and Facilitation of Foreign Direct Investment for Sustainable Development in Asia and the Pacific

The Handbook on FDI Policy, Promotion and Facilitation for Sustainable Development in Asia and the Pacific seeks to take stock of the findings on and experiences with inward FDI and to summarize them in a convenient package that helps policymakers formulate better FDI policies and investment promotion agencies (IPAs) to better promote and facilitate FDI for sustainable development. Better FDI policies means policies that help attract higher inflows of FDI of higher quality and higher development impact across the three dimensions of sustainable development: economic, social

United Nations ESCAP

The Gravity Model of International Trade: A User Guide (An updated version)

The gravity model is the workhorse of the applied international trade literature. It has been used in literally thousands of research papers and published articles covering all areas of trade. It is of particular interest to policy researchers because it makes it possible to estimate the trade impacts of various trade-related policies, from traditional tariffs to new “behind-the-border” measures.

Inclusive Business panel discussion in Asia-Pacific Business Forum

To meet the ambitions of the SDGs, we need inclusive businesses as well as responsible businesses if the principle of “leave no one behind” is to be realized. Inclusive businesses provide goods, services, and livelihoods - on a commercially viable basis - to people living at the base of the economic pyramid.


Strategic Policy Dialogue 2019: Building Impactful Economies – From Dialogue to Action

The United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP), British Council and the Asian Venture Philanthropy Network (AVPN) are honoured to invite you to join us at the AVPN Annual Conference for the Strategic Policy Dialogue in Singapore from 24th- 28th June 2019.

ESCAP, AVPN, British Council

Establishing Science and Technology Parks: A Reference Guidebook for Policymakers in Asia and the Pacific

During the past several decades, science and technology parks (STPs) in Asia have witnessed rapid development. This is reflected not only in the emergence of new STPs, but also in the successes of some prominent STPs in the region. With the current level of economic development in the region, Governments may perceive STPs as a means of upgrading production, promoting collaboration in research and innovation, and climbing global value chains. Therefore, it is likely that more STPs will be established by many developing countries in Asia and the Pacific.


Non-tariff measures and sustainable development: The case of the European Union import ban on seafood from Sri Lanka

Non-tariff measures (NTMs) can affect trade performance of trading partners. In addition to trade performance, the NTMs (including sanctions) may have direct and indirect linkages to capacity of trading partners to meet their commitments under Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The purposes of this research were to explore the performance of exports of seafood industry of Sri Lanka before, during and after the imposition of European Union’s ban (on ????) and to develop indicators and measure the impact of the same ban on stakeholders of the seafood industry in Sri Lanka by looking through the prism of sustainable development. More specifically, this study applied composite indicator approach with min-max normalization, arithmetic mean aggregations and weighting techniques to assess impact on several of SDGs. The principal component analysis was performed to identify the best sub-indicators for the composite indicator. During the period when the ban was in force, Sri Lanka seafood industry experienced lower revealed competitive advantage score, market concentration score and growth rate than at other times. Further, the findings revealed that the ban generated mixed effects on SDGs. Due to the ban, SDG 12 (responsible production) and SDG 14 (life below water) have been positively impacted while SDG 1 (no poverty) and SDG 8 (economic growth) were adversely affected. The research recommends that unilateral and ad hoc decisions should not be taken regarding NTMs because they have very sensitive and invisible linkages with SDGs. Furthermore, when there are legitimate need to impose such NTMs, sufficient time should be given to the trading partners to put in place measures and actions for compliance with such NTMs.