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Financing the Food Value Chain

Access to finance is always a top concern for enterprises because just as a car cannot run without oil, a business cannot develop and grow without financing. Sufficient funds allow companies to upgrade their machineries, adopt new technologies and hire top talents, which in turn increase productivity and profitability. In agriculture in particular, the need for financing is even more dire because of the inherent seasonality of its cash flows, and compounded if farmers have small landholdings and financial systems are primitive. Availability of finance and a robust financial system are important for the food value chain and, in general, for all businesses.

The Risk Associated with Private Equity Funding in Indian e-Commerce Sector

In India, most of the investments in the service sector are made in the form of private equity (PE), with the e-commerce segment being the largest receiver. Altough this has allowed the sector to grow, it does not favour the interests of young start-ups, as PE investors merely seek for short-term profit opportunities. After acquiring stakes in newly established companies, PE firms re-sell them after short time with premium rates. Despite being harmful, this remains the easiest option available for start-ups to access funds: receiving loans from banks is difficult, especially due to their lack of collaterals. In this situation, the Indian Government is taking steps forward to protect and encourage entrepreneurship by providing funds to allow the growth of start-ups. Yet, there is still room for new policies to allow the sustainable growth of newly-established companies without the need of turning to private equity financing.

Globalization, Inclusion, and E-Commerce: Agenda for SMEs

Globalization created wealth and improved standards of living and promoted convergence of incomes across economies. Yet, globalization’s benefits have been seen as heavily tilted towards multinational corporations (MNCs). It is perceived that this was enabled by the rules of global trade which are stacked against small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Today’s global agenda on greater inclusion is meant to remedy the disadvantages faced by small firms.

United States and the fight against climate change: A greater role for the US EXIM Bank?

The future of the Export Credit Agency (ECA) of the United States, the US Export Import Bank (EXIM bank hereafter), has been a controversial subject for the past presidential terms as proponents and opponents have been unable to agree on whether the Bank actually promotes US exports and generate American jobs. Of particular interest is the question of the environmental impact of the credit granted. In this essay, we examine the political complexity behind the role of US EXIM Bank in promoting climate compatible development in the past decade and offer insight into its potential future contribution to climate related actions.

Can the Sustainable Development Goals offer a new lease on life for the World Trade Organization?

Over the past few years, there has hardly been any doubt that the multilateral trading system being governed by the World Trade Organization (WTO) has been facing an existential crisis. This rather uneasy feeling was reinforced in Buenos Aires in December 2017, after the 11th Ministerial Conference (MC11) ended without taking decisions on any of the issues on which members of the organisation were engaged for the past several months. What is perhaps more problematic is that MC11 did not provide the organization its future work programme.

Using CGE modelling for Thailand`s policymaking in the context of regionalism and other trade policy options

Given the experience of Asia-Pacific economies it is difficult to deny the powerful transformative effect of integration into the global economy. Indeed, it is largely the success of the Asian Tigers that led to the emergence of the concept of export-led growth, and more recently, the growing prevalence of production through Global Value Chains has pointed towards a new paradigm for pursuing structural transformation through international integration.

Financing Trade and Supply Chains

International trade is widely acknowledged as a positive force in the creation of economic value and in the advancement of global development efforts and poverty-reduction initiatives. Imperfections and inadequacies in the system of global commerce aside for the moment, it is correct to consider trade to be one of the few truly global drivers of economic activity, and, as was illustrated during the global crisis, one area where national and international policy levers can be effective and highly impactful...

Escaping the “middle income trap”: the divergent experiences of the Republic of Korea and Brazil

This policy brief reviews the key drivers behind the successful catch - up through a comparative analysis of Republic of Korea and Brazil. These two economies represent an interesting case in that until the 1980s, the GDP of Brazil was higher than that of Republic of Korea. Thereafter, the two economies took different paths, with Brazil becoming stuck in so - called “middle - income trap” and Republic of Korea making a significant progress.