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An Evaluation of the Need for Selected Trade Facilitation Measures in Indonesia: Implications for the WTO Negotiations on Trade Facilitation

As a member of WTO, Indonesia has been involved in the discussions of the WTO Negotiating Group on Trade Facilitation (NGTF). This study aims to examine the current situation of trade facilitation in Indonesia, as well to assess the needs and priorities of various measures related to the trade facilitation negotiations. Trade activities have been the engine of growth since the period of economic liberalization and trade reform in the 1980s and 1990s.

An Evaluation of the Need and Cost of Selected Trade Facilitation Measures in Bangladesh: Implications for the WTO Negotiations on Trade Facilitation

With the ongoing customs reforms in Bangladesh, possible future WTO negotiations on trade facilitation will have profound impacts on Bangladesh, as well as on other least developed and developing countries. These countries will benefit greatly from new trade facilitation initiatives. Simultaneously, these countries may face enormous challenges in implementing their commitments in the area of trade facilitation. It is, thus, imperative for these countries to closely monitor the Doha negotiations in this area and be prepared their negotiating strategies.

The Need for and Cost of Selected Trade Facilitation Measures Relevant to the WTO Trade Facilitation Negotiation: A Case Study of Nepal

Trade facilitation is a longstanding and traditional feature of General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), which is expected to have serious implications for developing member countries. This study aims to evaluate the need for and the cost of implementing trade facilitation measures in Nepal in the context of the ongoing WTO negotiation. Nepal initiated market-oriented economic reforms in 1985. Trade liberalization under the economic reform was significant. Trade facilitation, however, has received its due attention only in recent years.

Why Trade Costs Matter?

Trade costs are often cited as an important determinant of the volume of trade. A growing literature has documented the negative impact of trade costs on the volume of trade. Most of these studies show that integration is the resultant of reduced costs of transportation in particular and other infrastructure services in general. Direct evidence on border costs shows that tariff barriers are now low in most countries across the world. Poor institutions and poor infrastructure penalize trade, differentially across countries.

Modelling the Doha Round Outcome: A Critical view

In a series of papers published during the past few years, World Bank economists have provided detailed projections by simulating the possible outcomes of the Doha Round negotiations1 . The projections have been obtained by using the LINKAGE Model, which is considered to be a global dynamic computable general equilibrium (CGE) model. The latest version of the LINKAGE Model, viz. LINK6, which these papers have relied on, uses the Global Trade Analysis Program (GTAP). LINK6 incorporates 87 countries/regions and 57 sectors and uses a dataset that has been updated up to 2001.

An Evaluation of the Need and Cost of Selected Trade Facilitation Measures in China - Implications for the WTO Negotiations on Trade Facilitation

In 2004, China became the third largest trading economy in the world. Although official overall average import tariff rate was reduced to 9.9% as of January 2005, actual tariff rates are likely much lower. Although further tariff reductions may lead to renewed and expanded global trade growth, trade facilitation will play an increasingly important role in promoting global trade. The Chinese government has made great efforts in trade facilitation and huge investments in related infrastructure, mainly as part of its “Fast Customs Clearance System”.

An Evaluation of the Need and Cost of Selected Trade Facilitation Measures in India: Implications for the WTO Negotiations

Though trade liberalization in India was launched as early as 1991, major policy attention paid to trade facilitation is a rather recent phenomenon. The Central Board of Excise and Customs (CBEC), a key government agency responsible for trade facilitation, has consolidated different initiatives in the past two years. The CBEC has accepted and implemented most of the key recommendations of Working Group on Trade Facilitation (WGTF).

Cost and Benefits of Implementing Trade Facilitation Measures under Negotiations at the WTO: an Exploratory Survey

After a review of implementation cost information found in WTO members proposals to the NGTF and relevant research and policy studies, results of an expert survey on the implementation costs associated with 12 trade facilitation measures (TFMs) relevant to the negotiations are presented. Long-term savings greatly exceed the perceived implementation costs for all measures considered.

Explaining the Supply-side Constraints to Export-led Growth in Selected Pacific Island Countries

Over the past two decades, an integral part of some Pacific island countries (PICs’) economic policy rhetoric has been export-led growth. However, despite the policy and technical support provided by many international organizations and bilateral donors, and an abundance of natural resources, their export sectors remain narrow and, with few exceptions, export industries have experienced little growth. Therefore, if these countries are to do better, it is critical to understand the supply- side constraints to export-led growth.

Trade Research Institutions in Asia-Pacific: Capacity-Building Needs in Developing Countries

The informal meeting of core Asia-Pacific Research and Training Network on Trade (ARTNeT) research institutions organized by UNESCAP and IDRC in June 2004 in Bangkok highlighted the need for capacity building of research institutions from Least Developed Countries in the region. Llittle research or information is, however, available on what the needs of these research institutions are, their existing trade research capacity and how this differs across countries.